Peppi Heinikainen

The EU has been side-lined in conflict management in its regions of interest

The European Union and its Member States have been participating in conflict management in various parts of the world, such as in Ukraine, where France and Germany were ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 4.12.2020

Taking advantage of the COVID-19 situation in the EU: China, Russia and Hungary

The year 2020 has now mainly been shaped by the COVID-19, which has rattled the whole world and the end of the pandemic is not yet in sight. Most of the EU member states have ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 8.4.2020

Cyber, hybrid and information warfare – are we too late to the game?

In the Western hemisphere, traditional means of warfare have largely disappeared. A grave exception of this is of course Ukraine, where an armed conflict has been present ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 5.2.2020

EU, China, and Russia in Africa – different approaches

Africa. A continent of vast potential. And a continent where global powers such as China and Russia have been increasingly active over the recent years. It is also a continent ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 29.11.2019

From neutrality to non-alignment

Most Member States of the European Union are part of NATO military alliance. There are, however, a few EU members that are not part of NATO. These states are still part of the ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 10.4.2019

Peace union: providing for peace?

”Never again.” The European Union was set up as a union of peace that would prevent wars from ever again occurring in Europe. In addition to creating peace and ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 15.1.2019

Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) – a new beginning for increased cooperation in EU defence?

There have been multiple times when various people have called for more cooperation in the EU defence and security sector. Last year, a step ahead was achieved when the Member ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 9.10.2018