Peppi Heinikainen

Taking advantage of the COVID-19 situation in the EU: China, Russia and Hungary

The year 2020 has now mainly been shaped by the COVID-19, which has rattled the whole world and the end of the pandemic is not yet in sight. Most of the EU member states have ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 8.4.2020

Cyber, hybrid and information warfare – are we too late to the game?

In the Western hemisphere, traditional means of warfare have largely disappeared. A grave exception of this is of course Ukraine, where an armed conflict has been present ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 5.2.2020

EU, China, and Russia in Africa – different approaches

Africa. A continent of vast potential. And a continent where global powers such as China and Russia have been increasingly active over the recent years. It is also a continent ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 29.11.2019

From neutrality to non-alignment

Most Member States of the European Union are part of NATO military alliance. There are, however, a few EU members that are not part of NATO. These states are still part of the ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 10.4.2019

Peace union: providing for peace?

”Never again.” The European Union was set up as a union of peace that would prevent wars from ever again occurring in Europe. In addition to creating peace and ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 15.1.2019

Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) – a new beginning for increased cooperation in EU defence?

There have been multiple times when various people have called for more cooperation in the EU defence and security sector. Last year, a step ahead was achieved when the Member ...

Peppi Heinikainen - 9.10.2018